What is Food Spoilage
If your mother happens to cook something you don’t like , you prefer to rat your chapati or parantha with mango pickle or mango chutney. Things like tomato ketchup , squashes , jams , pickels , etc ., are used all year round in our homes . But can you use a bread slice after two weeks of purchase from the market ?
What is Food Spoilage : A food item which has lost its colour or taste or both is said to be spolit. It often gives out a bad odour as well . For example , meat turns grey on getting spoilt . A bread slice develops fluffy green growth on getting old . Cooked dal or rice if left outside for long hours begins to develop bubbles and foul smell.
Reasons for Spoilage
There are many reasons for food Spoilage :
- Microorganism : Many small organisms are present in the aur which begin to grow and multiply on food at room temperature. They cause foul smell in food.
- Enzymes : All fruits and vegetables have enzymes in them which help in ripening. But it left unconsumed for long , the enzyme action continues and leads to black spots on the fruits and vegetables.
- Pests : Small in size , white , brown or black in colour , these feed on food grains , making holes in them.
The duration for which food can be safely stored is called it’s shelf life. Preservation implies storage of food in condition which delay food Spoilage and increase it’s shelf life .
Preservation involves eliminating reasons for food Spoilage. Many simple techniques followed at home can help us improve the shelf life of food items.
There are two types of foods. The food items that are spoilt easily are called perishable items and those that have a longer shelf life are called non-perishable food items. There are different methods of storing perishable and non-perishable items :
Storing perishable food items like milk , eggs , bread , fruits and vegetables at a lower temperature retards growth of germs and enzyme activity.
Milk at a constant temperature for some time is also called pasteurisation. It kills germs and bacteria growing in it. It was developed by a scientist called Louis Pasteur. Foods are also pressure cooked to destroy germs so that the food lasts longer.
It means removal of moisture as in case of pulses and food grains. Dry and clean storage further avoids Spoilage. Papads are also made by sun drying.
- Using Preservatives
Excessive salt and oil as in pickles and chutneys , sugar as in jams , squashes or murrabbas , prolongs shelf life of food items. Chemical preservatives like sodium meta-bi-sulphate kill all food spoiling bacteria and prevent food Spoilage. It is used in canning